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* Publication with a student or postdoctoral associate as first-author

  1. Petit T., M.S. Lozier , S.A. Josey, S.A. Cunningham. (2021) “Role of Air–sea Fluxes and Ocean Surface Density in the Production of Deep Waters in the Eastern Subpolar Gyre of the North Atlantic,” Ocean Science, 17(5), pp. 1353–1365. doi: 10.5194/os-17-1353-2021. [Full Text]
  2. Li, F., M.S. Lozier, S. Bacon, A. Bower, S.A. Cunningham, et al., 2021. Subpolar North Atlantic western
    boundary density anomalies and the Meridional Overturning Circulation, Nature Communications, 12(1). doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23350-2. [Full Text]
  3. Kostov, Y., H.L. Johnson, D.P, Marshall, P. Heimbach, G. Forget, N.P. Holliday, M.S. Lozier, F. Li, H.R.
    Pillar, and T. Smith, 2021. Distinct sources of interannual subtropical and subpolar Atlantic overturning variability, Nature Geosciences, , 14(7), pp. 491–495. doi: 10.1038/s41561-021-00759-4 [Full Text]
  4. LeBras, I, F. Straneo, M. Muilwijk, L.H. Smedsrud, F. Li, M.S. Lozier and N.P. Holliday, 2021. How Much Arctic Fresh Water Participates in the Subpolar Overturning Circulation? J. of Physical Oceanography, 51(3), pp. 955–973. doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-20-0240.1. [Full Text]
  5. *Drouin, K.L., M.S. Lozier and W.E. Johns, 2021. Variability and trends of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, Journal of Geophysical Research, 126(1). doi: 10.1029/2020JC016405. [Full Text]
  6. Petit, T., M.S. Lozier, S.A. Josey and S.A. Cunningham, 2020. Atlantic Deep Water Formation Occurs Primarily in the Iceland Basin and Irminger Sea by Local Buoyancy Forcing, Geophysical Research Letters, 47(22). doi: 10.1029/2020GL091028. [Full Text]
  7. Menary, M.B, L.C. Jackson, M.S. Lozier, 2020. Reconciling the Relationship Between the AMOC and Labrador Sea in OSNAP Observations and Climate Models, Geophysical Research Letters, 47 (18), [Full Text]
  8. *Li, L, M.S. Lozier and M. Buckley, 2020. An Investigation of the Ocean’s Role in Atlantic Multidecadal Variability. Journal of Climate, 33 (8), 3019–3035. [Full Text]
  9. *Drouin, K. and M.S. Lozier, 2019. The surface pathways of the South Atlantic: Revisiting the “cold” and “warm” water routes using observational data. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 124(10), pp. 7082–7103. doi: 10.1029/2019JC015267. [Full Text]
  10. Frajka-Williams, E., I.J. Ansorge, J. Baehr, H.L. Bryden, Chidichimo M., et al., 2019. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observed Transport and Variability. Frontiers in Marine Science,
  11. *Zou. S., A. Bower, H. Furey, M.S. Lozier and X. Xu, 2020. Redrawing the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water pathways in the North Atlantic. Nature Communications.
  12. *Zou. S., M.S. Lozier and X. Xu, 2020. Latitudinal structure of the Meridional Overturning Circulation variability on interannual to decadal time scales in the North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Climate.
  13. Bower, A., S. Lozier, A. Biastoch, K. Drouin, N. Foukal, H. Furey, M. Lankhorst, S. Rühs, and S. Zou, 2019. Lagrangian views of the pathways of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.
  14. *Zou, S., M.S. Lozier, F. Li, R. Abernathey, and L. Jackson (2020). Density-compensated overturning in the Labrador Sea, Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/s41561-019-0517-1.
  15. Lozier, M.S., F. Li, S. Bacon, F. Bahr, A.S. Bower, S.A. Cunningham, M.F. de Jong, L. de Steur, B. DeYoung, J. Fischer, S.F. Gary, N.J.W. Greenan, N.P. Holliday, A. Houk, L. Houpert, M.E. Inall, W.E. Johns, H.L. Johnson, C. Johnson, J. Karstensen, G. Koman, I.A. LeBras, X. Lin, N. Mackay, D.P. Marshall, H. Mercier, M. Oltmanns, R.S. Pickart, A.L. Ramsey, D. Rayner, F. Straneo, V. Thierry, D.J. Torres, R.G. Williams, C. Wilson, J. Yang, I. Yashayaev, and J. Zhao, 2019. A Sea Change in Our View of Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic.  Science, doi: 10.1126/science.aau6592 [Full Text]
  16. *Zou, S., M.S. Lozier and M.W. Buckley, 2019. How is meridional coherence maintained in the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation? Geophysical Research Letters, 45, doi: 10.1029/2018GL080958.
  17. Buckley, M.W., T. DelSole, M.S. Lozier and L. Li, 2019. Predictability of North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature and Upper Ocean Heat Content. Journal of Climate, 32, 3005-3023;
  18. *Li, F., M.S. Lozier, G. Danabasoglu, N. P. Holliday, Y.-O. Kwon, A. Romanou, S. G. Yeager, and R. Zhang, 2019. Local and downstream relationships between Labrador Sea Water volume and North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, Journal of Climate, 31, 5225–41; doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0692.1.
  19. *Foukal, N.P., and M.S. Lozier, 2018. Examining the origins of ocean heat content variability in the eastern North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1029/2018GL079122
  20. *Li, F. and M.S. Lozier, 2018. On the linkage between Labrador Sea Water volume and overturning circulation in the Labrador Sea: a case study on proxies.  Journal of Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0692.1
  21. *Li, F., M.S. Lozier and W. Johns, 2017. Calculating the meridional volume, heat and freshwater transports from an observing system in the subpolar North Atlantic: Observing system simulation experiment. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0247.1 [pdf]
  22. *Foukal, N.P., and M.S. Lozier, 2017. Assessing variability in the size and strength of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2017JC012798 [pdf]
  23. *Zou, S., M.S. Lozier, W. Zenk, A.S. Bower and W.E. Johns, 2017. Observed and Modeled Pathways of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water in the eastern North Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2017.10.003 [pdf]
  24. Lozier, M.S. et al., 2016. Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program: a new international ocean observing system. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0057.1 [pdf]
  25. *Zou, S. and M.S. Lozier, 2016. Breaking the linkage between Labrador Sea Water production and its export to the subtropical gyre.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0210.1 [pdf]
  26. *Brody, S.R., M.S. Lozier and A. Mahadaven, 2016. Quantifying the impact of submesoscale processes on the spring phytoplankton bloom in a turbulent upper ocean using a Lagrangian approach.  Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2016GL068051. [pdf]
  27. Rypina, I.I., L.J. Pratt and M.S. Lozier, 2016. Influence of ocean circulation changes on the inter-annual variability of American eel larval dispersal. Limnology and Oceanography, doi:10.1002/lno.10297. [pdf]
  28. Brown, P.T., M.S. Lozier, R. Zhang and W. Li, 2016. The necessity of cloud feedback for a basin-scale Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1002/2016GL068303. [pdf]
  29. *Foukal, N.P. and M.S. Lozier, 2016. On the propagation of sea-surface temperature anomalies from the subtropical gyre to the subpolar gyre in the North Atlantic. Nature Communications, doi: 10.1038/ncomms11333.[pdf]
  30. National Research Council, Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015, doi: 10.17226/21655 [pdf]
  31. *Dave, A.C, A.D. Barton, M.S. Lozier and G.A. McKinley, 2015. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic? Journal of Geophysical Research, doi: 1002/2015JC010787. [pdf]
  32. *Dave, A.C. and M.S. Lozier, 2015. The impact of advection on marine productivity variability in the equatorial Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:1002/2015GL063290. [pdf]
  33. Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, M.S. Lozier and D. Smith, 2015. Mechanisms of heat content and thermocline change in the subtropical and subpolar North Atlantic. Journal of Climate, 28, 9803-9815. [pdf]
  34. Yamamoto, A., J.B. Palter, M.S. Lozier, M.S. Bourqui and S.L. Leadbetter, 2015. Ocean versus atmosphere control on western European temperature variability, Ocean Dynamics, doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2558-5. [pdf]
  35. Kwon, Y.O., J.J. Park, S.F. Gary and M.S. Lozier, 2015. Year-to-year re-outcropping of Eighteen Degree Water in an eddy-resolving ocean simulation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 45, 1189–1204. doi: [pdf]
  36. Lozier, M.S. 2015. Overturning assumptions: Past, present, and future concerns about the ocean’s circulation. Oceanography, 28, 240–251.
  37. *Brody, S.R and M.S. Lozier, 2015. Characterizing upper-ocean mixing and its effect on the spring phytoplankton bloom with in-situ data. ICES Journal of Marine Systems, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv006. [pdf]
  38. *Barton, A.D., M.S. Lozier and R.G. Williams, 2015. Physical controls of variability in North Atlantic phytoplankton communities, Limnology and Oceanography, 60, 181-197. [pdf]
  39. Lozier, M.S. and S. Clem, 2015. Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to Increase Retention, in
    Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices Toward Parity (eds. M.A. Holmes, S.
    O’Connell and K, Dutt), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. doi: 10.1002/9781119067573.ch12.
  40. Rypina, I.I., J.K. Llopiz, L.J. Pratt and M.S. Lozier, 2014. Dispersal pathways of American eel larvae from the Sargasso Sea.  Limnology and Oceanography, 59(5), 1704–1714. doi:10.4319/lo.2014.59.5.1704. [pdf]
  41. Abbott, J., J.L. Anderson, L. Campling, R. Hannesson, E. Havice, M.S. Lozier, M.D. Smith, and M.J. Wilberg, 2014. Steering the Global Partnership for the Oceans. Marine Resource Economics,29, 1-16. [pdf]
  42. *Burkholder and M.S. Lozier, 2014. Tracing pathways of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation’s upper limb. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 4254-4260.[pdf]
  43. * Brody, S.R and M.S. Lozier, 2014. Changes in dominant mixing length scales as a driver of subpolar phytoplankton bloom initiation in the North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 3197-3203.[pdf]
  44. *Gary, S.F., M.S. Lozier, Y.O. Kwon, and J.J. Park, 2014. The fate of North Atlantic subtropical mode water in the FLAME model. Journal of Physical Oceanography,44, 1354-1371. [pdf]
  45. Williams, R.G., V. Roussenov, D. Smith and M.S. Lozier, 2014.  Decadal evolution of ocean thermal anomalies in the North Atlantic: the effect of Ekman, overturning and horizontal transport, Journal of Climate, 27, 698-719.[pdf]
  46. White, J.C., R.B. Alley, D.E. Archer, A.D. Barnosky, J. Foley, R. Fu, M.M. Holland, M.S. Lozier, J. Schmitt, L.C. Smith, G. Sugihara, D.W.J. Thompson, A.J. Weaver and S.C. Wofsy. National Research Council, Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises, Washington, D.C: The National Academies Press, 220 pp, 2013.
  47. *Dave, A. and M.S. Lozier, 2013. Examining the global record of interannual variability in stratification and marine productivity in the low-and mid-latitude ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 3114–3127. [pdf]
  48. *Brody, S.R, M.S. Lozier and J.P. Dunne, 2013.  A comparison of methods to determine phytoplankton bloom initiation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 2345-2357. [pdf]
  49. Riser, S. C. and M.S. Lozier, 2013. Rethinking the Gulf Stream.  Scientific American, 308, 50–55. [pdf]
  50. Lozier, M.S., S.F. Gary and A.S. Bower, 2013.  Simulated pathways of the overflow waters in the North Atlantic: subpolar to subtropical export, Deep Sea Research II, 85, 147-153. [pdf]
  51. *Gary, S.F., M.S. Lozier, A. Biastoch, C.W. Böning, 2012.  Reconciling tracer and float observations of the export pathways of Labrador Sea Water, Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L24606, doi:10.1029/2012GL053978. [pdf]
  52. Srokosz, M., M. Baringer, H. Bryden, S. Cunningham, T. Delworth, S. Lozier, J. Marotzke and R. Sutton, 2012. Past, present and future change in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 1663–1676. doi: [pdf]
  53. Lozier, M.S., 2012.  Overturning in the North Atlantic.  Annual Review of Marine Science, 4, 291-315. [pdf]
  54. *Ayers, J.M. and M.S. Lozier, 2011. Unraveling dynamical controls on the North Pacific carbon sink.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, C01017, doi:10.1029/2011JC007368. [pdf]
  55. *Burkholder, K.C. and M. S. Lozier, 2011.  Mid-depth Lagrangian pathways in the eastern North Atlantic and their impact on high latitude salinities.  Deep Sea Research, 58, 1196-1204. [pdf]
  56. Lozier, M. S., A. C. Dave, J. B. Palter, L. M. Gerber, and R. T. Barber, 2011.  On the relationship between stratification and primary productivity in the North Atlantic.  Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L18609, doi:10.1029/2011GL049414. [pdf]
  57. Palter, J.B., M.S. Lozier, J.L. Sarmiento, R.G. Williams, 2011.  The supply of excess phosphate across the Gulf Stream and the maintenance of subtropical nitrogen fixation.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB4007, doi:10.1029/2010GB003955. [pdf]
  58. Bozec, A., M.S. Lozier, E.P. Chassignet  and G.R. Halliwell, 2011.  On the variability of the Mediterranean Outflow Water in the Atlantic Ocean from 1948 to 2006. . Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 116, C09033,doi:10.1029/2011JC007191. [pdf]
  59. *Robel A., M.S. Lozier, S. Gary, G. Shillinger, H. Bailey, and S. Bograd, 2011. Projecting uncertainty onto marine megafauna trajectories, Deep Sea Research, 58 (9), 915-921. [pdf]
  60. *Burkholder, K.C. and M. S. Lozier, 2011.  Subtropical to subpolar pathways in the North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 116, C07017, doi:10.1029/2010JC006697. [pdf]
  61. Rypina, I.I., L.J. Pratt and M.S. Lozier, 2011.  Near-surface transport pathways in the North Atlantic Ocean: Looking for throughput from the subtropical to the subpolar gyre, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 41, 911-925. [pdf]
  62. Bower, A.S., M.S. Lozier and S.F. Gary, 2011.  The export of Labrador Sea Water from the subpolar North Atlantic: a Lagrangian perspective.  Deep Sea Research, 58, 1798-1818. [pdf]
  63. *Gary, S.F., M.S. Lozier, C. Böning and A. Biastoch, 2011.  Deciphering the pathways for the deep limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation.  Deep Sea Research II, 58, 1781-1797. [pdf]
  64. *Dave, A. and M.S. Lozier, 2010. Local stratification control of marine productivity in the subtropical North Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, C12032, doi:10.1029/2010JC006507.[pdf]
  65. Lozier, M.S., V. Roussenov, S. Mark., C. Reed and R.G. Williams, 2010. Opposing decadal changes for the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.  Nature Geosciences, 3, 728-734. [pdf]
  66. Lozier, M.S., 2010.  Deconstructing the Conveyor Belt.  Science 328, 1507-1511. [pdf]
  67. *Ayers,  J.M. and M.S. Lozier, 2010. Physical controls on the seasonal migration of the North Pacific transition zone chlorophyll front.  Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2009JC005596. [pdf]
  68. The CLIMODE Group, 2009.  The CLIMODE field campaign: Observing the cycle of convection and restratification over the Gulf Stream. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90, 1337–1350. [pdf]
  69. Lozier, M.S. and L. Sindlinger, 2009. On the Source of Mediterranean Overflow Water Property Changes.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39, 1800-1817. [pdf]
  70. Bower, A.S., M.S. Lozier, S.F. Gary and C. Böning, 2009.  Interior pathways of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.  Nature458, 243-247. [pdf]
  71. Lavine, M., G. Hegerl and M.S. Lozier, 2009.  Discussion of reified Bayesian modelling and inference for physical systems by Michael Goldstein and Jonathan Rougier.  Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 139, 1243-1245. [pdf]
  72. Lozier, M.S., 2009.  Overturning assumptions.  Nature Geosciences, 2, 12-13, doi:10.1038/ngeo402. [pdf]
  73. Lozier, M.S. and N. M. Stewart, 2008.  On the temporally varying northward penetration of Mediterranean Overflow Water and eastward penetration of Labrador Sea Waters.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 38, 2097-2103. [pdf]
  74. *Palter, J.B. and M.S. Lozier, 2008.  On the source of Gulf Stream nutrients.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C06018, doi:10.1029/2007JC004611. [pdf]
  75. *Palter, J.B., M.S. Lozier and K. Lavender, 2008.  How does Labrador Sea Water enter the Deep Western Boundary Current?  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 38, 968-983. [pdf]
  76. Lozier, M.S., S.J. Leadbetter, R.G. Williams, V. Roussenov, M.S.C. Reed and N.J. Moore, 2008.  The spatial pattern and mechanisms of heat content change in the North Atlantic.  Science, 319, 800-803. [pdf]
  77. *Hanshaw, M. N., M. S. Lozier, and J. B. Palter, 2008. Integrated impact of tropical cyclones on sea surface chlorophyll in the North Atlantic, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L01601, doi:10.1029/2007GL031862. [pdf]
  78. *Rappold, A.G., M. Lavine and M.S. Lozier, 2007. Subjective likelihood for the assessment of trends in the ocean’s mixed-layer depth.  Journal of the American Statistical Association. 102, no. 479, 771-787. [pdf]
  79. *Palter, J.B., M.S. Lozier, and R.T. Barber, 2005.  The effect of advection on the nutrient reservoir in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Nature , 437, 687-692. [pdf]
  80. Lozier, M.S. and M.S. Reed, 2005.  The influence of topography on the stability of shelfbreak fronts. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 35, 1023–1036. [pdf]
  81. Rasmussen, L. L., G. G. Gawarkiewiecz, W. B. Owens and M.S. Lozier, 2005.  .  Slope water, Gulf Stream and seasonal influences during the fall-winter transition in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C02009, doi: 10.1029/2004JC002311 [pdf]
  82. *Yuan, G., M. S. Lozier, L. Pratt, C. Jones and K. Helfrich, 2004.  Estimating the predictability of an oceanic time series using linear and nonlinear methods.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C08002, doi:10.1029/2003JC002148. [pdf]
  83. *Potter, R. A. and M. S. Lozier, 2004.  On the warming of the Mediterranean outflow waters in the North Atlantic.  Geophysical  Research Letters, 31, L01202, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018161. [pdf]
  84. Lozier, M. S., M. S. Reed and G. G. Gawarkiewicz, 2002.  Instability of a shelfbreak front. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32, 924-944. [pdf]
  85. Chao, Y. and M. S. Lozier, 2001.  Evaluation of North Atlantic property field simulations at 1/6°.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 1377-1398. [pdf]
  86. Lozier, M. S. and G. G. Gawarkiewicz, 2001.  Cross-frontal exchange in the Middle Atlantic Bight as evidenced by surface drifters.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 2498-2510. [pdf]
  87. McCartney. M. S. and M. S. Lozier, 2001.  Ocean Dynamics.  Encyclopedia of Global Change.  Andrew S. Goudie (editor),Oxford University Press, 1424 pp. ISBN13: 978-0-19-510825-5.
  88. *Iorga, M. and M. S. Lozier, 1999.  Signatures of the Mediterranean outflow from a North Atlantic climatology  2.  Diagnostic velocity fields.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 26,011-26,029. [pdf]
  89. *Iorga, M. and M. S. Lozier, 1999.  Signatures of the Mediterranean outflow from a North Atlantic climatology 1. Salinity and density fields.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 25,985-26,009. [pdf]
  90. Lavine, M. and M. S. Lozier, 1999.  A Markov random field spatio-temporal analysis of ocean temperature. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 6, 249-273. [pdf]
  91. Lozier, M. S., 1999.  The impact of mid-depth recirculations on the distribution of tracers in the North Atlantic.  Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 219-222. [pdf]
  92. Lozier, M. S., 1997.  Evidence for large-scale eddy-driven gyres in the North Atlantic.  Science, 277, 361-364. [pdf]
  93. Lozier, M. S., L. J. Pratt, A. M. Rogerson and P. D. Miller, 1997.  Exchange geometry revealed by float trajectories in the Gulf Stream.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 2327-2341. [pdf]
  94. Lozier, M. S., T. J. Bold and A. S. Bower, 1996.  The influence of propagating waves on cross stream excursions.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26, 1915-1923. [pdf]
  95. *Wang, W. and M. S. Lozier, 1995.  An estimate of the climatological mean circulation in the western North Atlantic.  Journal of Marine Research, 53, 1059-1080. [pdf]
  96. Lozier, M. S., W. B. Owens and R. G. Curry, 1995.  The climatology of the North Atlantic.  Progress in Oceanography, 36, 1-44. [pdf]
  97. Pratt, L. J., M. S. Lozier and N. Belakovia, 1995.  Parcel trajectories in quasigeostrophic jets:  Neutral modes.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25, 1451-1466. [pdf]
  98. Lozier, M. S., M. S. McCartney and W. B. Owens, 1994.  Anomalous anomalies in averaged hydrographic data.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 2624-2638. [pdf]
  99. Bower, A. S. and M. S. Lozier, 1994.  A closer look at particle exchange in the Gulf Stream.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 1399-1418.[pdf]
  100. Lozier, M. S. and D. Bercovici, 1992.  Particle exchange in an unstable jet.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22, 1506-1516. [pdf]
  101. Lozier, M. S. and S. C. Riser, 1990.  Potential vorticity sources and sinks in a quasigeostrophic ocean:  Beyond western boundary currents.  Journal of Physical Oceanography,20, 1608-1627. [pdf]
  102. Lozier, M. S. and S. C. Riser, 1989.  Potential vorticity dynamics of boundary currents in a quasigeostrophic ocean.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 19, 1373-1396. [pdf]